Diabetes and Obesity

Molecular Hydrogen Research on Diabetes and Obesity

Molecular hydrogen affects body composition, metabolic profiles, and mitochondrial function in middle-aged overweight women
Volunteers received either hydrogen-generating minerals (supplying ~6 ppm of H2 per day) or placebo by oral administration of caplets for 4 weeks. The primary end-point of treatment efficacy was the change in the body fat percentage from baseline to 4 weeks. In addition, assessment of other body composition indices, screening laboratory studies, and evaluation of side effects were performed before and at follow-up. Clinical trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov , ID number NCT02832219. It appears that orally administered H2 as a blend of hydrogen-generating minerals might be a beneficial agent in the management of body composition and insulin resistance in obesity.

Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome
This study confirmed that molecular hydrogen can decrease LDL-cholesterol levels in human patients, based on the findings in a similar study using hamsters. Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were significantly decreased after 10 weeks of molecular hydrogen treatment in all 20 patients who participated in this study. Out of the 20 patients, 10 of the patients were smokers. It seemed that the lipid lowering effects of molecular hydrogen were slightly better in smokers than nonsmokers. HDL-Cholesterol and glucose levels in the blood of the patients were unaffected. Molecular hydrogen also decreased the oxidation of LDL. LDL oxidation leads to inflammation and contributes to atherosclerosis. Overall, molecular hydrogen holds promise as a powerful tool to control lipid metabolism disorders.

Hydrogen Improves Glycemic Control in Type1 Diabetic Animal Model by Promoting Glucose Uptake into Skeletal Muscle
Hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant. However, there are few reports on H(2) function in other capacities in diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of H(2) in glucose transport by studying cultured mouse C2C12 cells and human hepatoma Hep-G2 cells in vitro, in addition to three types of diabetic mice [Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice, high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice, and genetically diabetic db/db mice] in vivo. The results show that H(2) promoted 2-[(14)C]-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) uptake into C2C12 cells via the translocation of glucose transporter Glut4 through activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), although it did not stimulate the translocation of Glut2 in Hep G2 cells. H(2) significantly increased skeletal muscle membrane Glut4 expression and markedly improved glycemic control in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic mice after chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) administration. However, long-term p.o. administration of H(2) had least effect on the obese and non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mouse models. Our study demonstrates that H(2) exerts metabolic effects similar to those of insulin and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus that can be administered orally.

Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice
In this study, type 2 diabetes model mice were used in which oxidative stress accumulated in the liver lead to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Chronic consumption of molecular hydrogen rich water reduced oxidative stress in the liver of these mice, which is something that has been confirmed in many different studies. The notable finding in this study was that molecular hydrogen rich water enhanced the expression of a hepatic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which is a regulator of energy expenditure. This finding suggests that molecular hydrogen has a great potential in the therapy and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The study also showed that molecular hydrogen can be accumulated in the liver with glycogen after oral administration.
Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome
This study showed that consuming hydrogen rich water for 8 weeks resulted in a 39% increase in the antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and a 43% decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). TBARS is a biomarker for oxidative stress. This indicates that molecular hydrogen may help stimulate the activity of SOD inside the cells. The patients in the study also demonstrated an 8% increase in HDL-cholesterol and a 13% decrease in total cholesterol. Molecular hydrogen is a potentially novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
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